Today the XLV Incontro di Studiosi dell’Antichità Cristiana started at the Institute Augustinianum in Rome. This year main topic is: “The Child in the Christian Sources (I-V Century)”. The member of our team, Stanisław Adamiak, is going to talk about the children of the clerics in the canons of the councils of the fourth and fifth century.
For the full program see HERE.
The book “Carthage, Constantinople, and Rome.Imperial and Papal Interventions in the life of the Church in byzantine Africa (533-698)” is based on the doctoral dissertation defended at the Pontifical Gregorian Univeristy in Rome in 2011. Now it has been issued by the Gregorian and Biblical Press (Pontifical Biblical Institute) in the series Miscellanea Historiae Pontificae.
Description of the book:
The Byzantine period in North Africa was a point of convergence for three different conceptions of Church governance: the imperial administration was aiming to exercise full control over the ecclesiastical hierarchy, the popes were intent on treating African bishops as suffragans, whereas the bishops, them selves, were most eager to preserve the autonomous and conciliar character of their Church. Conflicts were also always in the offing as a result of deep theological differences: the African clergy was Latin speaking and very determined to defend strict Chalcedonian orthodoxy, whereas the emperors sometimes proposed more compromising solutions in the many Christological debates.
Dramatic events, such as the Vandal and Berber wars, the Three Chapters quarrel, the Monothelete crisis and the Arab invasions, inevitably have been more prominent in the annals of history, however, the history of the Church in Byzantine Africa was written not only in the dust of galloping cavalry squadrons and in the clamor of mutual anathemas in Christological quarrels. The proceedings and canons of the councils, the exchange of and canons of the concils, the exange of letters with Rome and Constantinople, and imperial rescripts have provided us with some valuable insights into the everyday problems of the African Church, and especially into the concerns that preoccupied her higher clergy. We saw long disputes over episcopal precedence and arguments over the issue of clerical appeals. Questions concerning matters of ecclesiastical propriety and the admittance of former heretics and schismatics into the clergy have been examined.
We left our desks and libraries, we put aside (for the moment!) smoothing up records in our database, and we headed for Rome to held a joint field workshop with the members of the team of the “Cult of Saints”project, based at University of Oxford and directed by Professor Bryan Ward-Perkins. We have spent six intensive days in the Eternal City to study the ancient *tituli*, visit the most important places associated with the cult of saints, examine Late Antique and Early Mediaeval mosaics and frescoes, and dwell on the Christian topography of Rome.
During our lenghty wanderings in Rome, we visited almost thirty churches, excavations under the basilica of St. Peter (Scavi San Pietro) and under the basilica of Santi Giovanni e Pietro on the Cealian Hill, Vatican Museums (although unluckily Museo Pio Christiano was closed), and, of course, the catacombs. Moreover, on Tuesday morning we called to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. We were received by Father Zdzisław Kijas, consultor in the Congregation, who told us about the modern procedure that leads to the beatification and canonization of saints.
Friday was a special day – for more than 8 hours we were visiting the catacombs, guided by two epigraphists, Professori Antonio Felle and Donatella Nuzzo. We started with those of Domitilla, then those of San Sebastian where we spent a lot of time examining graffiti which attested the cult of Peter and Paul in the famous triclia. Finally, we went to the catacombs of Callixtus where our group’s lengthy stays in the Crypt of the Popes and other interesting cubicula made life uncountable for tourists and their guides…
The members of the Oxford team were privileged, because the signs of the ancient cult of saints were omnipresent. We, the humble presbyters, had much less reasons to got excited. Nonetheless, we got our share in the cubiculum of the presbyter Eulalios in the catacombs of Domitilla. We were also finding presbyters in lapidaries, especially generous for us was the lapidary in San Clemente. And, of course, there was the great mosaic of the presbyter Peter in Santa Sabina, probably the biggest in the world inscription of a presbyter.
The week in Rome passed quickly, but fruitfully. Putting our knowledge of the historical sources in the archaeological and topographical context provoked us to rethink once again our hypotheses, and gave us a fresh look on some of the most difficult conundrums we are dealing with. Certainly then we go back to our desks, libraries, and databases with a new enthusiasm, more profound interest, and fresh ambition.